Guideline for creating educational videos
This guideline was created to give a theoretical framework for the nuances of the educational video development process. Please look into the articles for more details or you can contact me directly.
|Section||Why it is important?||Research author(s)|
|Pre-production||One of the most important parts of an efficient educational video creation process.||Guo et al. 2014|
|Talking-head||Common educational video type. Evidenced to promote high engagement with personalization benefits.||Guo et al. 2014; Clark and Mayer 2008|
|Static images||Slides, code or other pictorial information. Graphic types and their efficient use.||Guo et al. 2014; Clark and Mayer 2008|
|Animation||Motion animation and highlighting. Efficient for temporal changes and directing attention.||Clark and Mayer 2008; Tversky et al. 2002|
|Khan-style||Common educational video type. Evidenced to promote high engagement in problem-solving type videos.||Guo et al. 2014; Barretto et al. 2014|
|Micro-level activities||Promotes easier absorption of information and engagement.||Merk et al. 2011|
|Macro-level activities||Can enrich content but requires training.||Kalyuga 2009; Delen et al. 2014|
|Pausing – Free recalling||Active free-recalling between heavy cognitive load segments can increase the transfer of information.||Cheon et al. 2014|
|Dividing||Decreases the load on working memory and thus facilitates processing of different segments.||Clark and Mayer 2008; Mayer and Chandler 2001; Moreno 2007; Schwan et al. 2000; Zacks et al. 2007|
|Duration||An approximation of the correct length of a segment for increased engagement.||Guo et al. 2014|
|Section||Why it is important?||Research author(s)|
|A person in the video||Evidenced to promote deeper engagement.||Clark and Mayer 2008; Guo et al. 2014|
|A person in the video – Enthusiasm||Evidenced to promote deeper engagement.||Guo et al. 2014|
|Non-verbal immediacy||Affects student motivation and perception of teacher credibility.||Houser et al. 2007; Kearney et al. 1985; Burgoon et al. 2002|
|Static graphics – Graphic types||Framework for using graphics efficiently.||Clark and Mayer 2008|
|Static graphics – Text||When and how text should be used efficiently.||Clark and Mayer 2008|
|Animation – Highlighting||The benefits of directing user attention through different highlighting means.||Paik and Schraw 2013; Mayer 2005; Atkinson 2002; Craig et al. 2002; Jeung et al. 1997|
|Animation – Tracing||Reduces cognitive load by leaving a trace of the animation.||Ng et al. 2013|
|Animation – Motion||Efficient for depicting complicated temporal changes.||Ng et al. 2013|
|Animation – Pre-training||Preparing viewers for heavy cognitive load of motion type animation.||Mayer and Moreno 2003; Clark and Mayer 2008; Mayer et al. 2002; Pollock et al. 2002|
|Animation – Schematic||The schematic use of animation over realistic animation.||Cheon et al. 2014; Tversky et al. 2002|
|Sound effects and music||Framework for using sound effects and music efficiently.||Mallon et al. 2012|
|Narration – Pitch and loudness||Affects motivation.||Calandra et al. 2008|
|Narration – Conversational style||Promotes learning efficiency.||Clark and Mayer 2008; Beck et al. 1996|
|Narration – Native speaker||Increases information transfer efficiency.||Atkinson et al. 2005; Mayer et al. 2003|
|Narration – Pace||High pace increases engagement.||Guo et al. 2014; Calandra et al. 2008|
|Narration – Tone||Affects motivation.||Calandra et al. 2008|
|Narration – Tone – Politeness||Has a positive impact on learning efficiency.||Wang et al. 2008|
|Narration – Tone – Humor||Affects motivation and credibility.||Houser et al. 2007|
|Narration – Tone – Enthusiasm||Affects engagement.||Guo et al. 2014|
|Audio quality||Highlights the importance of audio quality.||Reeves and Nass 1996|
References and contributing literature related to the building of the framework:
Aguilar-Savén, R. S., 2004. ’Business Process Modelling: Review And Framework’. International Journal Of Production Economics 90(2), 129-149.
AnyPresence, 2013. The State of Enterprise Mobile Readiness 2013. (website) http://www.anypresence.com/blog/2013/07/11/state-enterprise-mobile-readiness-2013/ (10.5.2015)
Atkinson, R., Mayer, E., and Merrill, M. 2005. Fostering social agency in multimedia learning: Examining the impact of an animated agent’s voice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(1), 117-139.
Atkinson, R. 2002. Optimizing Learning From Examples Using Animated Pedagogical Agents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 416–427.
Baddeley, A. D. 1992. Working memory. Science, 255, 556-559.
Baek, Y. and Layne, B. 1988. Color, graphics, and animation in a computer-assisted learning tutorial lesson. Journal of computer-based instruction 15(4), 131-135.
Baggett, P. 1984. Role of temporal overlap of visual and auditory material in forming dual media associations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 408-417.
Barretto, J., Reilly, J., Brown, D., Frost, L., Coticone, S., Dubetz, T., Zanna, B., McGibony, M., Ramoutar, R., and Rudd, G., 2014. ’A Case Study For Teaching Quantitative Biochemical Buffer Problems Using Group Work And ”Khan Style” Videos.’. Journal Of College Science Teaching 44(1), 34-39.
Beccue, B., Vila, J., & Whitley, L. 2001. The effects of adding audio instructions to a multimedia computer based training environment. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 10(1), 47-67.
Beck, I., McKeown, M.G., Sandora, C., Kucan, L., & Worthy, J. 1996. Questioning the author: A year-long classroom implementation to engage students in text. Elementary School Journal, 96, 385–414.
Benedetto, C. 1999. ’Identifying The Key Success Factors In New Product Launch’. Journal Of Product Innovation Management 16(6), 530-544.
Bichsel, J., 2013. The State of E-learning in Higher Education: An Eye toward Growth and Increased Access (Research Report), Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research, June 2013, (online) http://www.educause.edu/ecar (29.4.2015).
Bishop, M. J., Tonya B. Amankwatia, and Ward Mitchell Cates. 2007. ’Sound’S Use In Instructional Software To Enhance Learning: A Theory-To-Practice Content Analysis’. Education Tech Research Dev 56(4), 467-486.
Bloom, P. 2011. ’Eyedirect: Solving The Problem Of Getting People To Look Straight Into The Camera.’. (website) http://philipbloom.net/2011/01/27/eyedirect/ (29.4.2015).
Burgoon, J. K., Bonito, J. A., Ramirez, Jr., A., Dunbar, N. E., Kam, K., and Fischer, J. 2002. Testing the interactivity principle: Effects of mediation, propinquity, and verbal and nonverbal modalities in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Communication, 52, 657-677.
Calandra, B., Barron, A. and Thompson-Sellers, I. 2008. Audio Use in E-Learning: What, Why, When, and How?. International Journal on E-Learning. 7(4), 589-601.
Carnegie, Dale, and Carnegie, Dorothy. 1962. The Quick And Easy Way To Effective Speaking. New York: Association Press.
Cheon, J., Chung, S., Crooks, S., Song, J. and Kim, J. 2014. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(2).
Clark, J. and Paivio, A. 1991. Dual coding theory and education. Educational psychology review, 3(3), 149-210.
Clark, R. C., and Mayer, R. E. 2008. E-Learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting. 2004. Television goes to school: The impact of video on student learning in formal education. Washington, D. C.: Corporation for Public Broadcasting. (website) http://cct.edc.org/sites/cct.edc.org/files/publications/PBS_tv-school.pdf (29.4.2015)
Craig, S. D., Gholson, B. & Driscoll, D. M. 2002. Animated Pedagogical Agents in Multimedia Educational Environments: Effects of Agent Properties, Picture Features, and Redundancy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 428-434.
Cross, A., Bayyapunedi, M., Cutrell, E., Agarwal, A., and Thies, W. 2013. TypeRighting: Combining the Benefits of Handwriting and Typeface in Online Educational Videos. CHI ’13, ACM (New York, NY, USA, 2013).
Delen, E., Liew, J. and Willson, V. 2014. Effects of interactivity and instructional scaffolding on learning: Self-regulation in online video-based environments. Computers & Education, 78, 312-320.
Field, A. 2005. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage Publications.
Guo, P., Kim, J. and Rubin, R. 2014. How Video Production Affects Student Engagement: An Empirical Study of MOOC Videos. (website) http://pgbovine.net/publications/edX-MOOC-video-production-and-engagement_LAS-2014.pdf (29.4.2015)
Harvey, J. 1998. Evaluation Cookbook. Edinburgh: LTDI.
Hede, A. 2002. An integrated model of multimedia effects on learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 11(2), 1 77-191.
Hegarty, M., Kriz, S and Cate, C. 2003. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21, 325-360.
Heilesen, S. B. 2010. What is the academic efficacy of podcasting? Computers & Education, 55(3), 1063–1068.
Houser, M., Cowan, R. and West, D. 2007. Investigating a new education frontier: Instructor communication behavior in CD-ROM Texts—Do traditionally positive behaviors translate into this new environment?. Communication Quarterly, 55(1), 19-38.
HS.fi,. 2015. ’Espoo Ostaa Kaikille Koululaisille Tabletit – 12 000 Laitetta Vuosittain, Hinta Kuusi Miljoonaa’. (website) http://www.hs.fi/kaupunki/a1305944521204. (29.4.2015)
HS.fi,. 2 2015. ’Helsingin Koulut Sijoittavat Miljoonia Mobiililaitteisiin – Oppilaille Esimerkiksi Tabletteja’. (website) http://www.hs.fi/kaupunki/a1427427831758?ref=hs-art-artikkeli. (29.4.2015)
Jeung, H., Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. 1997. The role of visual indicators in dual sensory mode instruction. Educational Psychology, 17, 329-343.
Kalyuga, S. 2009. Managing Cognitive Load In Adaptive Multimedia Learning. Hershey, Pa.: Information Science Reference.
Kay, R. 2012. Exploring the use of video podcasts in education: A comprehensive review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 820-831.
Kay, R. and Edwards J. 2012. ’Examining The Use Of Worked Example Video Podcasts In Middle School Mathematics Classrooms: A Formative Analysis’. Canadian Journal Of Learning And Technology 38(3), 1-20.
Kearney, P., Plax, T. G., & Wendt-Wasco, N. J. 1985. Teacher immediacy for affective learning in divergent college classes. Communication Quarterly, 33, 61.74.
Kester, L., Lehnen, C., Van Gerven, P. and Kirschner, P. 2006. Just-in-time, schematic supportive information presentation during cognitive skill acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(1), 93-112.
Kirsh, D. and Maglio, P. 1994. On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action. Cognitive science, 18(4), 513-549.
Koehler, M. and Mishra, P. 2009. What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.
Leahy, W., Chandler, P., and Sweller, J. 2003. When auditory presentations should and should not be a component of multimedia instruction. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 401-418.
Likert, R. 1932. A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55.
Linek, S., Gerjets, P., and Scheiter, K. 2010. The speaker/gender effect: Does the speaker’s gender matter when presenting auditory text in multimedia messages? Instructional Science, 38, 503-521.
Lowe, R. K. 1993. Constructing a mental representation from an abstract technical diagram. Learning and Instruction, 3, 157-179.
Lowe, R. K. 2003. Animation and learning: Selective processing of information in dynamic graphics. Learning and Instruction, 13, 247- 262.
Lowe, R. K. 2004. Interrogation of a dynamic visualization during learning. Learning and Instruction, 14, 257–274.
Mallon, B., Quinlan, J., and Nolan, K. 2012. eLearning Modalities: A Framework for Selecting Audio. The Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on e-Learning.
Mayer, R. and Chandler, P. 2001. When learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multimedia messages?. Journal of educational psychology, 93(2), 390.
Mayer, R., Mathias, A., and Wetzell, K. 2002. Fostering understanding of multimedia messages through pre-training: Evidence for a two-stage theory of mental model construction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 147–154
Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. 2003. Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52.
Mayer, R. 2005. The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R., Hegarty, M., Mayer, S. and Campbell, J. 2005. When static media promote active learning: annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 256.
Mayer, R., Sobko, K., and Mautone, P. D. 2003. Social cues in multimedia learning: Role of speaker’s voice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 419–425.
Mayer, R., and Gallini, J. 1990. When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 64–73.
Mayer, R., Bove, W., Bryman, A., Mars, R., and Tapangco, L. 1996. When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 64–73.
McDrury, Janice, and Maxine Alterio. 2003. Learning Through Storytelling In Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.
McGarr, O. 2009. A review of podcasting in higher education: Its influence on the
traditional lecture. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(3), 309–321.
Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M. J., Pratt, J., and ID2 Research Group. 1996. Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology, 36(5), 5-7
Merkt, M. and Schwan, S. 2014. Training the use of interactive videos: effects on mastering different tasks. Instructional Science, 42(3), 421-441.
Merkt, M., Weigand, S., Heier, A. and Schwan, S. 2011. Learning with videos vs. learning with print: The role of interactive features. Learning and Instruction, 21(6), 687-704.
Moon, Y., and Naas, C. 1996. How ‘‘real’’ are computer personalities? Psychological responses to personality types in human-computer interaction. Communication Research, 23, 651-674.
Moreno, R. 2007. Optimising learning from animations by minimising cognitive load: Cognitive and affective consequences of signalling and segmentation methods. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 765–781.
Moreno, R. and Flowerday, T. 2006. Students’ choice of animated pedagogical agents in science learning: A test of the similarity-attraction hypothesis on gender and ethnicity. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(2), 186-207.
Moreno, R., and Mayer, R. E. 1999. Multimedia-supported metaphors for meaning making in mathematics. Cognition and Instruction, 17, 215–248.
Moreno, R., and Mayer, R. E. 2002. Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When reading helps listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 156–163.
Nass, C., and Brave, S. 2005. Wired for speech: How voice activates and advances the human-computer relationship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ng, H., Kalyuga, S. and Sweller, J. 2013. Reducing transience during animation: a cognitive load perspective. Educational Psychology, 33(7), 755-772.
Niglas, K. 2004. Introducing the quantitative-qualitative continuum: an alternative view on teaching research methods courses, in Murtonen, M., Rautapuro, J. and Väisänen, P. (eds.) Learning and teaching of research methods at university. Research in Educational Sciences: 30. Turku: Finnish Educational Research Association. 185-203. (online) http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/. (29.4.2015)
Nunnally, J. 1967. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Paas, F. and Van Merrienboer, J. 1994. Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 351-371.
Paas, F., Tuovinen, J., Van Merrienboer, J. and Darabi, A. 2005. A motivational perspective on the relation between mental effort and performance: Optimizing learner involvement in instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 25-34.
Paik, E. and Schraw, G. 2013. Learning with Animation and the Illusion of Understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 278-289.
Paivio, A. 1986. Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Pappas, A. P. and DePuy, V., 2004. ’An Overview Of Non-Parametric Tests In SAS ® : When, Why, And How’. Duke Clinical Research Institute Durham, North Carolina, USA. (online) http://analytics.ncsu.edu/sesug/2004/TU04-Pappas.pdf.
Paulhus, D. L. 1984. Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46(3), 598.
Peter, C. 2008. Affect and emotion in human-computer interaction. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer.
Pintrich, P. 2003. A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of educational Psychology, 95(4), 667.
Pollock, E., Chandler, P., and Sweller, J. 2002. Assimilating complex information. Learning and Instruction, 12, 61-86.
Putnam, R. and Borko, H. 2000. What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning?. Educational researcher, 4-15.
Reeves, B., Nass, C. 1996. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rey, G. 2010. Multimedia learning: Are we still asking the wrong questions?. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 19(1), 103-120.
Roam, D. 2009. The Back of the Napkin (Expanded Edition): Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. New York: Portfolio.
Rodicio, H. 2012. Learning from multimedia presentations: The effects of graphical realism and voice gender. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(2), 885-906.
Rother, M. and Shook, J. 1999. Learning to See: Value Stream Mapping to Create Value and Eliminate Muda, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Brookline, MA.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2009. Research methods for business students. 5th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.
Schnotz, W. & Rasch, T. 2005. Enabling, facilitating, and inhibiting effects of animation in multimedia learning: Why reduction of cognitive load can have negative results on learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 47-58.
Schüler, A., Scheiter, K., and van Genuchten, E. 2011. The Role Of Working Memory In Multimedia Instruction: Is Working Memory Working During Learning From Text And Pictures?.Educational Psychology Review 23(3), 389-411.
Schwan, S. and Riempp, R. 2004. The cognitive benefits of interactive videos: Learning to tie nautical knots. Learning and Instruction, 14(3), 293-305.
Schwan, S., Garsoffky, B., and Hesse, F. 2000. Do film cuts facilitate the perceptual and cognitive organization of activity sequences? Memory and Cognition, 28(2), 214-223.
Stat.fi. 2015. Tilastokeskus – Oppilaitosten Opiskelijat Ja Tutkinnot 2013. (online) http://www.stat.fi/til/opiskt/2013/opiskt_2013_2015-01-20_tie_001_fi.html. (29.4.2015)
Smy, G. 2014. Psychology Behind Whiteboard Videos – How They Increase Learning By 15% (website). http://www.sparkol.com/blog/how-scribe-videos-increase-your-students-learning-by-15/. (16.5.2015)
Sweller, J. 1988. ’Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects On Learning’. Cognitive Science 12 (2): 257-285.
Sweller, J. 1994. Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295-312.
Sweller, J., Ayres, P. and Kalyuga, S. 1980. Cognitive load theory. 1st ed.
Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J. J. G., and Paas, F. 1998. Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251-296.
Tindall-Ford, S., Chandler, P., and Sweller, J. 1997. When two sensory modes are better than one. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3(4), 257-287.
Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B., and Be´trancourt, M. 2002. Animation: can it facilitate? International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 57, 247-262.
Tullis, T., and Albert W. 2013. Measuring The User Experience. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Van der Meij, H. and van der Meij, J. 2014. A comparison of paper-based and video tutorials for software learning. Computers & Education, 78, 150-159.
Van Gog, T., Verveer, I. and Verveer, L. 2014. Learning from video modeling examples: Effects of seeing the human model’s face. Computers & Education, 72, 323-327.
Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., Schuurman, J. G., de Croock, M. B. M. and Paas, F. 2002. Directing learners’ attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency. Learning and Instruction, 12, 11-37.
Wang, N., Johnson, W., Mayer, R., Rizzo, P., Shaw, E. and Collins, H. 2008. The politeness effect: Pedagogical agents and learning outcomes. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(2), 98-112.
Wetzel, C. D., Radtke, P. H., and Stern, H. W. 1994. Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Williams, J. R. 1998. ’Guidelines For The Use Of Multimedia In Instruction’. Proceedings Of The Human Factors And Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 42(20), 1447-1451.
Winn, J.W. 1993. Perception principles. In M. Fleming & H. Levie (Eds.), Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Winter, C. F. J. and Dodou, D. 2010. Five-Point Likert Items: t test versus Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 15(11), 1-16.
Womack, J. and Jones, D. 2003, Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Wood, D., Bruner, J. and Ross, G. 1976. The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100.
Zacks, J. M., Speer, N. K., Swallow, K. M., Braver, T. S., and Reynolds, J. R. 2007. Event perception: A mind–brain perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 273–293.