Guideline for creating educational videos

This guideline was created to give a theoretical framework for the nuances of the educational video development process. Please look into the articles for more details or you can contact me directly.

Section Why it is important? Research author(s)
Pre-production One of the most important parts of an efficient educational video creation process. Guo et al. 2014
Example Methods
Talking-head Common educational video type. Evidenced to promote high engagement with personalization benefits. Guo et al. 2014; Clark and Mayer 2008
Static images Slides, code or other pictorial information. Graphic types and their efficient use. Guo et al. 2014; Clark and Mayer 2008
Animation Motion animation and highlighting. Efficient for temporal changes and directing attention. Clark and Mayer 2008; Tversky et al. 2002
Khan-style Common educational video type. Evidenced to promote high engagement in problem-solving type videos. Guo et al. 2014; Barretto et al. 2014
Micro-level activities Promotes easier absorption of information and engagement. Merk et al. 2011
Macro-level activities Can enrich content but requires training. Kalyuga 2009; Delen et al. 2014
Pausing – Free recalling Active free-recalling between heavy cognitive load segments can increase the transfer of information. Cheon et al. 2014
Dividing Decreases the load on working memory and thus facilitates processing of different segments. Clark and Mayer 2008; Mayer and Chandler 2001; Moreno 2007; Schwan et al. 2000; Zacks et al. 2007
Duration An approximation of the correct length of a segment for increased engagement. Guo et al. 2014
Section Why it is important? Research author(s)
Visual Elements
A person in the video Evidenced to promote deeper engagement. Clark and Mayer 2008; Guo et al. 2014
A person in the video – Enthusiasm Evidenced to promote deeper engagement. Guo et al. 2014
Non-verbal immediacy Affects student motivation and perception of teacher credibility. Houser et al. 2007; Kearney et al. 1985; Burgoon et al. 2002
Static graphics – Graphic types Framework for using graphics efficiently. Clark and Mayer 2008
Static graphics – Text When and how text should be used efficiently. Clark and Mayer 2008
Animation – Highlighting The benefits of directing user attention through different highlighting means. Paik and Schraw 2013; Mayer 2005; Atkinson 2002; Craig et al. 2002; Jeung et al. 1997
Animation – Tracing Reduces cognitive load by leaving a trace of the animation. Ng et al. 2013
Animation – Motion Efficient for depicting complicated temporal changes. Ng et al. 2013
Animation – Pre-training Preparing viewers for heavy cognitive load of motion type animation. Mayer and Moreno 2003; Clark and Mayer 2008; Mayer et al. 2002;  Pollock et al. 2002
Animation – Schematic The schematic use of animation over realistic animation. Cheon et al. 2014; Tversky et al. 2002
Sound effects and music Framework for using sound effects and music efficiently. Mallon et al. 2012
Narration – Pitch and loudness Affects motivation. Calandra et al. 2008
Narration – Conversational style Promotes learning efficiency. Clark and Mayer 2008; Beck et al. 1996
Narration – Native speaker Increases information transfer efficiency. Atkinson et al. 2005; Mayer et al. 2003
Narration – Pace High pace increases engagement. Guo et al. 2014; Calandra et al. 2008
Narration – Tone Affects motivation. Calandra et al. 2008
Narration – Tone – Politeness Has a positive impact on learning efficiency. Wang et al. 2008
Narration – Tone – Humor Affects motivation and credibility. Houser et al. 2007
Narration – Tone – Enthusiasm Affects engagement. Guo et al. 2014
Audio quality Highlights the importance of audio quality. Reeves and Nass 1996

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